Functions of Management

Management is the process of reaching organizational goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources. 
Management has the following 3 characteristics:
  1. It is a process or series of continuing and related activities.
  2. It involves and concentrates on reaching organizational goals.
  3. It reaches these goals by working with and through people and other organizational resources.

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS:
The 4 basic management functions that make up the management process are described in the following sections:
  1. PLANNING
  2. ORGANIZING
  3. STAFFING
  4. DIRECTING
  5. CONTROLLING 

PLANNING: Planning involves choosing tasks that must be performed to attain organizational goals, outlining how the tasks must be performed, and indicating when they should be performed.
Planning activity focuses on attaining goals. Managers outline exactly what organizations should do to be successful. Planning is concerned with the success of the organization in the short term as well as in the long term.
ORGANIZING:
Organizing can be thought of as assigning the tasks developed in the planning stages, to various individuals or groups within the organization. Organizing is to create a mechanism to put plans into action.
People within the organization are given work assignments that contribute to the company’s goals. Tasks are organized so that the output of each individual contributes to the success of departments, which, in turn, contributes to the success of divisions, which ultimately contributes to the success of the organization.Organizing as a process involves:

  • Identification of activities.
  • Classification of grouping of activities.
  • Assignment of duties.
  • Delegation of authority and creation of responsibility.
  • Coordinating authority and responsibility relationships.
STAFFING:

It is the function of manning the organization structure and keeping it manned. Staffing has assumed greater importance in the recent years due to advancement of technology, increase in size of business, complexity of human behavior etc. The main purpose o staffing is to put right man on right job.
Staffing involves:

  • Manpower Planning (estimating man power in terms of searching, choose the person and giving the right place).
  • Recruitment, Selection & Placement.
  • Training & Development.
  • Remuneration.
  • Performance Appraisal.
  • Promotions & Transfer.
DIRECTING:
It is that part of managerial function which actuates the organizational methods to work efficiently for achievement of organizational purposes. It is considered life-spark of the enterprise which sets it in motion the action of people because planning, organizing and staffing are the mere preparations for doing the work. Direction is that inert-personnel aspect of management which deals directly with influencing, guiding, supervising, motivating sub-ordinate for the achievement of organizational goals. Direction has following elements:
  • Supervision
  • Motivation
  • Leadership
  • Communication
Supervision- implies overseeing the work of subordinates by their superiors. It is the act of watching & directing work & workers.
Motivation- means inspiring, stimulating or encouraging the sub-ordinates with zeal to work. Positive, negative, monetary, non-monetary incentives may be used for this purpose.
Leadership- may be defined as a process by which manager guides and influences the work of subordinates in desired direction.
Communications- is the process of passing information, experience, opinion etc from one person to another. It is a bridge of understanding.


CONTROLLING:

Controlling is the following roles played by the manager:
  1. Gather information that measures performance
  2. Compare present performance to pre established performance norms.
  3. Determine the next action plan and modifications for meeting the desired performance parameters.

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